Neck. ex Nevski, Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 4: 332 (1937)
Small to large perennial herbs. Rootstock tuberous, tubers flat, palmately bifid or 5-fid, ovoid, oblong- cylindrical or cylindrical to napiform, often attenuated, rarely entire or shallowly bifid or trifid at apex, usually sessile. Stem erect or flexuose, solid or ± hollow, glabrous, leafy. Leaves basal, rosulate and/ or cauline (most commonly cauline), often cucullate at apex, spotted purple, or unspotted. Inflorescence usually densely many-flowered; floral bracts leafy, rather fleshy, often exceeding the flowers. Flowers rose-purple, purplish violet, yellow, yellowish green, greenish brown or rarely white. Sepals glabrous. Dorsal sepal and petals often connivent and forming a loose hood. Lateral sepals usually free, rarely connivent, spreading or deflexed. Labellum entire and concave or ± three-lobed and flat, rarely elongate, spurred, surface flat, convex, undulate or deflexed, minutely papillose above, often with a darker coloured patterning of lines, loops or dots, ecallose, or with three basal calli, porrect to deflexed, sometimes linear-oblong and hanging vertically, spur cylindrical or conical, ± equalling ovary, or extremely short and obtuse with the entrance compressed by two transverse constrictions. Column short, erect; middle lobe of rostellum usually situated between parallel anther loculi; pollinia two, clavate, parallel, converging above or diverging, with caudicles, each adherent to a viscidium placed in a simple bursicle or viscidia virtually naked, the bursicle rudimentary. Ovary cylindrical-fusiform, sessile, twisted, glabrous. (JW).